Blood sugar levels rise sharply after we eat a meal high in sugar or starch. During digestion, both sugar and starch (carbohydrate) in food is broken down to a small sugar molecule called glucose, and absorbed into the bloodstream. Glucose serves as energy source for the ells, tissues and organs of the body, such as the brain, muscles, heart, kidney and liver. However, if glucose is not taken up by cells and blood glucose levels remain high, this causes damage to the lining of arteries. Ultimately organs such as the eyes, kidney and heart are damaged, leading to the complications we see in diabetes. The body therefore has a sophisticated way of regulating blood glucose through the action of the hormone insulin.
Here is a short video explaining how this system works, and what you can do to ensure that your blood sugar levels remain in the healthy range.